Unless indicated by a box () all lots in this catalogue are offered subject to a reserve. A reserve is the confidential minimum hammer price at which a lot will be sold. The reserve is generally set at a percentage of the low estimate and will not exceed the low estimate of the lot. If any lots in the catalogue are offered without reserve, such lots will be designated by a box ( ). If every lot in a catalogue is offered without a reserve, the Conditions of Sale will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot.
Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided Sotheby's with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale at a value that ensures the lot will sell. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder. If the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, they will be required to pay the full Buyer's Premium and will not be otherwise compensated. If the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot.
Lots with this symbol indicate that parties with a direct or indirect interest in the lot may be bidding on the lot, including (i) the beneficiary of an estate selling the lot, or (ii) the joint owner of a lot. If the interested party is the successful bidder, they will be required to pay the full Buyer's Premium. In certain instances, interested parties may have knowledge of the reserve. In the event the interested party's possible participation in the sale is not known until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that interested parties may be bidding on the lot.
Lots with this symbol may, in our opinion, require special handling or shipping services due to size or other physical considerations. Bidders are advised to inspect the lot and to contact Sotheby's prior to the sale to discuss any specific shipping requirements.
Lots with this symbol have been identified at the time of cataloguing as containing organic material which may be subject to restrictions regarding import or export. The information is made available for the convenience of Buyers and the absence of the Symbol is not a warranty that there are no restrictions regarding import or export of the Lot; Bidders should refer to Condition 12 of the Conditions of Sale. Please also refer to the section on Endangered Species in the information on Buying at Auction.
In order to bid on "Premium Lots" ( or the paddle symbol in print catalogue, in the eCatalogue) you must complete the required Premium Lot pre-registration application. You must arrange for to receive your pre-registration application at least 3 working days before the sale. Please bear in mind that we are unable to obtain financial references over weekends and public holidays. Sotheby’s decision whether to accept any pre-registration application will be final. If your application is accepted you will be provided with a special paddle number. If all lots in the catalogue are “Premium Lots” a Special Notice will be included to this effect and this symbol will not be used.
The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. This guarantee may be provided by Sotheby’s or jointly by Sotheby’s and a third party. Sotheby’s and any third parties providing a guarantee jointly with Sotheby’s benefit financially if a guaranteed lot is sold successfully and may incur a loss if the sale is not successful.
Sotheby's Ownership Interest
Lots marked with this symbol indicate that Sotheby's owns the lot in whole or in part or has an economic interest in the lot equivalent to an ownership interest.